|Improvements other than the principal buildings.
|Modifications in the reported value of a variable, such
as sale price. For example, adjustments can be used to estimate market value
in the sales comparison approach by modifications for differences between
comparable and subject properties.
|According to value.
|AD VALOREM TAX|
|A tax levied in proportion to the value of the thing(s) being
taxed. Exclusive of exemptions, use-value assessment provisions, and the like,
the property tax is an ad valorem tax.
ANTICIPATION, PRINCIPLE OF|
the present worth of all the anticipated future benefits to be derived from a property.
The benefits, in the form of an income stream or amenities, are those benefits anticipated
by the market. The assessor should not allow personal opinion to influence
the estimation of anticipated future benefits. Prior sales and prior income
streams are important only when the parallel the current actions of buyers, thus
providing an indication of what may be expected in the future. The principle is
related to the principle of change, which can sometimes make the prediction of future
|(1) The ratio of the appraised value to an indicator of market
value. (2) By extension, an estimated fractional relationship between the
appraisals and market values of a group of properties.
APPRAISAL RATIO STUDY|
|A ratio study using independent appraisals as indicators
of market value.
APPRAISAL-SALE PRICE RATIO|
|The ratio of the appraised value to the
sale price (or adjusted sale price) of a property; a simple indication of
APPRAISAL STANDARDS BOARD|
|The division of the APPRAISAL FOUNDATION that develops,
publishes, interprets, and amends the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal
Practice on behalf of appraisers and users of appraisal services.
|(verb) The official act of discovering, listing, and appraising
property. (noun) The value placed on property in the course of such act.
|The degree to which assessments bear a consistent
relationship to market value.
|The common or overall ratio
of assessed values to market values.
|(1) The fractional relationship an assessed value bears
to the market value of the property in question. (2) By extension, the fractional
relationship the total of the assessment roll bears to the total market value of
all taxable property in a jurisdiction. See level of assessment.
ASSESSMENT-SALE PRICE RATIO|
|The ratio of the assessed value to the sale
price (or adjusted sale price) of a property.
|The arithmetic mean of the absolute deviations of a set
of numbers from a measure of central tendency, such as the median. Taking
absolute values is generally understood without being stated. The average
deviation of the numbers 4,6, and 10 about the median (6) is (2 +0+4)/3 =2.
The average deviation is used in computing the coefficient of dispersion.
|Capitalization is the process
of converting a series of anticipated future payments (income) into present value.
Capitalization transforms net operating income produced by a property into the property
|A composite rate used
for converting property income into property value.
|(1) The tendency
of most kinds of data to cluster around some typical or central value, such as the
mean, median, or mode. (2) By extension, any or all such statistics. Some
kinds of data, however, such as the weights of cars and trucks, may cluster about
two or more values, and in such circumstances, the meaning of central tendency becomes
unclear. This may happen in ratio studies when two or more classes of property
|The loss resulting from
the failure of tenants to pay the rent.
COEFFICIENT OF DISPERSION|
deviation of a group of numbers from the median expressed as a percentage of the
median. In ratio studies, the average percentage deviation from the median ratio.
COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION (COV)|
standard statistical measure of the relative dispersion of the sample data about
the mean of the data; the standard deviation expressed as a percentage of the mean.
|One of the three approaches to value,
the cost approach is based on the principle of substitution – that a rational, informed
purchaser would pay no more for a property than the cost of building an acceptable
substitute with utility. The cost approach seeks to determine the replacement
cost new of an improvement less depreciation plus land value.
|Information expressed in any of a number of ways. "Data" is the general
term for masses of numbers, codes, and symbols generally, and "information" is the
term for meaningful data. "Data" is the plural of datum, one element of data.
is the method used to convert net income from the property into an indication of
property value using an overall rate developed from the market. The method
does not consider the land separate from the building as do the land and building
|The rate of return on a
real estate investment. The discount rate reflects the compensation necessary
to attract investors to give up liquidity, defer compensation, and assume the risks
of investing. It is the rate of return required on total property investment
to meet investment requirements. The discount rate is the weighted average
of the mortgage interest rate and the equity yield rate, weighted by the proportions
of total investment represented by mortgage(s) and equity, and is often called the
property's interest rate.
|The degree to which data are distributed
either tightly or loosely around a measure of central tendency. Measures of
dispersion include the average deviation, coefficient of dispersion, coefficient
of variation, range, and standard deviation.
|The period during which a given tangible asset, building,
or other improvement to property is expected to contribute
(positively) to the value of the total property. This period is typically
shorter than the period during which the improvement could be left on the property,
that is, its physical life.
EFFECTIVE GROSS INCOME (EGI)|
income is Potential Gross Income less vacancy and collection loss, plus appropriate
EFFECTIVE TAX RATE|
|The rate expressing the ratio
between the property value and the current tax bill; the official tax rate of the
taxing jurisdiction multiplied by the assessment ratio.
EQUITY YIELD RATE|
|The total rate of return on equity
capital; used in reference to return on equity investments as opposed to interest
on mortgage loans.
EQUITY DIVIDEND RATE|
|The direct relationship between
annual equity income and equity capital; often referred to as the "cash on
|Classification by construction quality, which refers to the types
of materials used and, the quality of workmanship. Buildings of better quality
(higher grade) cost more to build per unit of measure and command higher value.
GROSS INCOME MULTIPLIER(GIM)|
technique that uses the ratio between the sale price of a property and its potential
gross income or its effective gross income. Once calculated for several similar
assets, a GIM may be multiplied against the income of a property to obtain an estimate
HIGHEST AND BEST USE|
|That use which will generate
the highest net return to the property over a reasonable period of time. According
to the United States Supreme Court (1894) :"The value of property results from the
use to which it is put and varies with the profitableness of that use, present and
prospective, actual and anticipated. There is no pecuniary value outside of
that which results from such use." (Cleveland, C. C. and St. Louis Ry., Co
v Backus 154 U.S. 445 (1894)
Washington law requires the Assessor to take cognizance of highest
and best use in the establishment of true and fair value.
"Unless specifically provided otherwise by statute, all property
shall be valued on the basis of its highest and best use for assessment purposes.
Highest and best use is the most profitable, likely use to which a property can
be put. It is the use, which will yield the highest return on the owner's investment.
Any reasonable use to which the property may be put may be taken into consideration
and if it is peculiarly adapted to some particular use, that fact may be taken into
consideration. Uses that are within the realm of possibility, but not reasonably
probable of occurrence, shall not be considered in valuing property at its highest
and best use." WAC 458-07-30 (3)
|Anything done to raw land with the intention
of increasing its value. A structure erected on the property constitutes one
very common type of improvement, although other actions, such as those taken to
improve drainage, are also improvements.
|Buildings, other structures, and attachments or annexations
to land that are intended to remain so attached or annexed, such as sidewalks, trees,
drives, tunnels, drains and sewers.
|The income approach defines value as
the present worth of future benefits arising from the ownership of a property. This
definition reflects the principle of anticipation. Income-producing property
typically is purchased for the right to receive the future income stream of the
property. The assessor analyzes this income stream in terms of quantity, quality,
and duration and then converts it by means of an appropriate capitalization rate
into an indication of market value. The basic formula is: Value equals
income divided by rate.
LEVEL OF ASSESSMENT; ASSESSMENT RATIO|
|The common or overall ratio
of assessed values to market values.
|The process of valuing a group
of properties as of a given date, using standard methods, employing common data,
and allowing for statistical testing.
MASS APPRAISAL MODEL|
expression of how supply and demand factors interact in a market.
|Income from sources
other than actual rent (parking, laundry facilities vending machines and so on).
|(1) A representation of how something works.
(2) For purposes of appraisal, a representation (in words or an equation) that explains
the relationship between values or estimated sale price and variables representing
factors of supply and demand.
NET OPERATING INCOME (NOI)|
income is the income remaining after subtracting operating expenses from effective
potential gross income.
|The direct relationship between annual
net operating income and sale price or value; includes the proper provision
of discount and recapture.
POTENTIAL GROSS INCOME (PGI)|
gross income is annual economic rent for the property at 100 percent occupancy.
|At a minimum, an exterior
observation of the property to determine whether there have been any changes in
the physical characteristics that affect value. The property improvement record
must be appropriately dcoumented in accordance with the findings of the physical
inspection. (Defined in WAC 458-07-015)
|A study of the relationship between
appraised or assessed values and market values. Indicators of market values
may be either sales or independent "expert" appraisals. Of common interest in ratio
studies are the level and uniformity of the appraisals or assessments. See also
level of appraisal and level of assessment.
|The rate of return of a real estate
investment; the annual dollar requirement for returning to the investor a
sum equal to the property value (improvements only) at the end of a given period
of time. Recapture is the provision for returning to the investor a sum of money
equal to the improvement value at the end of a given period of time. The recapture
rate may be selected by two methods: 1) Economic-life method – requires
a judgment as to the number of years the building will produce income and add value
to the land. 2) Market comparison method – obtains recapture rate by
dividing net operating income after discount and taxes by the building value.
REPLACEMENT COST; REPLACEMENT COST NEW|
|The cost, including material, labor,
and overhead, that would be incurred in constructing an improvement having the same
utility to its owner as a subject improvement, without necessarily reproducing exactly
any particular chacteristics of the subject. The replacement cost concept
implicitly eliminates all functional obsolescence from the value given; thus only
physical depreciation and economic obsolescence need to be subtracted to obtain
replacement cost new less depreciation (RCNLD).
REPLACEMENT COST NEW LESS DEPRECATION (RCNLD)|
| In the cost approach, replacement
cost new less physical incurable depreciation.
|A sample of observations from a larger population
of observations, such that statistics calculated from the sample can be expected
to represent the characteristics of the population being studied.
SALES COMPARISON APPROACH|
the concept of value in exchange, the sales comparison approach compares the property
being appraised with similar properties sold in the recent past. The characteristics
of the sold properties are analyzed for their similarity to those of the subject
of appraisal. Because no two parcels are exactly alike, the prices of the
sold properties must be adjusted for any differences between the properties and
the subject property. Value indications derived from the sales comparison approach
are usually considered particularly significant because they express the reactions
of buyers and sellers in the real estate market. The sales comparison can be used
to value any property, whether improved or vacant, as long as that type of property
is being exchanged periodically in the market.
|A way of calculating the recapture rate in the income
approach. It assumes that an investor will deposit recapture income in an interest-bearing
account and will thus, in effect, accelerate recapture. To use it, an appraiser
goes to a compound interest table to locate the interest rate the investor would
probably get and looks down the column of sinking-fund factors to the number of
years equal to the remaining economic life of the improvements. Adding that
sinking-fund factor to the discount rate gives the recapture rate.
UNIFORM STANDARDS OF APPRAISAL PRACTICE (USPAP)|
|Annual publication of the Appraisal Standard Board of The
Appraisal Foundation: "These Standards deal with the procedures to be followed in
performing an appraisal, review or consulting service and the manner in which an
appraisal, review or consulting service is communicated….STANDARD 6 sets forth criteria
for the development and reporting of mass appraisals for ad valorem tax purposes
or any other universe of properties."
|The equality of the burden of taxation
in the method of assessment.
VACANCY AND COLLECTION LOSS|
is a necessary deduction from gross income because property will not remain fully
rented for entire period of life.
|An item of observation that can assume various
values, for example, square feet, sales prices, or sales ratios. Variables
are commonly described using measures of central tendency and dispersion.